Working Paper | January 22, 2019

The University as an Engine of Innovation: Critical Case Studies from Brazil and the U.S.

Universities today are increasingly viewed as essential contributors to innovation and
economic growth. Whether as a partner with industry and government (Etskowitz, 2000) or more
recently, as part of an entrepreneurial ecosystem (Audretsch, 2012), the university’s role now
extends well beyond just research and education to more applied and translational work with
industry as well as more entrepreneurial activities that support new venture formations among
students and faculty. Transferring technology from the university to the market place through
firms and industries has become a central focus of the university, even for those that have
epitomized the “ivory tower.”